Aren’t we accustomed with a sense of superiority to look at the achievements of scientists and thinkers of the past. All previous inventions in our eyes pale in comparison with the scientific breakthroughs of our time. But you will be surprised to know that there are a few amazing ancient discoveries, much ahead of his, and our time and irretrievably lost. If able today to reproduce at least one of them, the world can change completely.
Italian craftsman Antonio Stradivari, who lived in the 17th and 18th centuries, have left a significant trace in the history of manufacturing musical instruments. In our days there are about 500 violins, made by his hands. They are sold for tens of millions of dollars and are considered to be truly unique. Equipment and materials that Stradivarius used in the work, was passed down from father to son for eight generations, but Antonio was the last in the chain. After all his information was lost. One of the researchers was not able to unravel the secret of Stradivarius violins. One version says that the master used wood from the Ice age.
Archimedes the fire
One of the greatest mathematicians in history, Archimedes of Syracuse was born in year 287 BC. He was able to use a system of mirrors so that the ships attacking Syracuse, was burned to the ground from the direct rays of the sun in a few seconds. This experiment has still not managed to play anyone – a ray of light always turns out not powerful enough to cause a fire.
Sea battles in Ancient Byzantium was the Bane of Western European crusaders. The horror they brought the methods of the Greeks to set fire to the ships. No one could understand how they do it, because the ships are burning right on the water. The fact that the warriors had a unique gas mixture, which caused violent explosions. Besides, it was impossible to extinguish by any means, but sand, vinegar and urine. Scientists argue whether this compound is similar in composition to the powder. Anyway, her recipe was then a state secret, the secret has remained to this day.
Anyone who has watched or read “Game of thrones” may have heard of Valyrian steel. So, it is its prototype was the Damascus steel, which was stronger than any other known materials. According to legend, the swords made of it, could finely chop the weapons of the enemy and easily cut through the thin hair on the fly. Knowledge about how Damascus steel was produced, was lost in the early 18th century.
The technology of making glass was known since the third Millennium BC. To this period belong the oldest glass objects. One of the Roman legend says that there was this kind of material, such as flexible glass. It was mentioned by Pliny the Younger, Petronius, Dion Cassius. According to them, the Creator of the flexible glass was the alchemist, which so surprised everyone that he was taken to the Emperor Tiberius. The latter threw the bowl made of flexible glass on the floor, but that is not crashed, but only a little wrinkled. The master did not want to disclose the secret composition of the material. Then, Tiberius ordered his execution for fear that flexible glass will affect the value of gold and silver.
The elixir of immortality or a cure-all – like terms from the video game. But history knows a real example, when such a composition was invented. He was positioned as the antidote to any poison, and was created by Mithridates IV, king of Parthia of the dynasty of the arsacids. The Governor suspected that his own mother is poisoning him small doses of poison. Panacea Mithridates was used and in later times up to the 18th century. Oliver Cromwell believed, for example, that it treats acne.
You are never surprised by the almost perfect preservation of the Roman aqueducts, roads and temples? Even the local harbour, more than 2 thousand years of destroying the sea, is still intact. The material from which all this is done, Roman cement was made from volcanic ash. However the full recipe has not reached us. It is a pity, because the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome is made from it. Today’s building materials are manufactured using high-tech, but you can’t even compare in strength with Roman cement.
Professor and journalist Eugene Mallow was known to the researcher the possibility of cold nuclear fusion – producing energy without radiation and heating the material, to which nobody managed. One of the books Mallow describes the details of the experiment in 1989, during which cold fusion is managed at the University of Utah. However, documentary evidence that sheds light on the reaction mechanism, could not be found – Mallow was killed in 2004, and the mystery died with him.
The Tesla’s death ray
Tesla said that during the 40 years he worked on directed energy weapons. He claimed to have gone beyond the experiment and was able to use its deadly installation. However, the scientist for some reason did not want to publish the results. It was believed that such a “death ray” can shoot down aircraft and generally represents a completely new type of weapon. However the details of the invention are not preserved.
This plastic material is said to have been invented in the 70-ies of the 20th century hairdresser Maurice ward. He called it “starlight” and even showed the transfer of scientific inventions on the BBC. There were shown how the material was treated with normal chicken egg, then warmed with a blowtorch for several minutes. Then the egg broke and it was moist. In theory, the starlight could protect people from a nuclear explosion. However, ward was very protective of his invention, therefore, the composition of the material was never released. The inventor himself died in 2011.